The Pathomechanics, Clinical Assessment and Management of Hallux Valgus: A Literature Review


  • Natasha Valerie Faculty of Medicine, Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia
  • Putri Maya Sari Faculty of Medicine, Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia
  • Edlyn Amadea Widjaja UNIKA Atma Jaya
  • Erica Kholinne Department of Orthopedic Surgery, St. Carolus Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia



Hallux Valgus, Forefoot deformity, Bunion, Foot and ankle


Hallux valgus, the most common forefoot deformity, can restrict movement and cause pain. There are several internal and external variables that contribute to the development and advancement of the hallux valgus. Several conservative and surgical treatment methods must be determined depending on the severity of the bunion, as well as any concomitant foot and ankle diseases. Only when the condition is still in its early stages can conservative management stop the progression of hallux valgus. Surgical treatment of hallux valgus is technically difficult and carries a high risk of recurrence and complications.


Download data is not yet available.


Easley ME, Trnka H-J. Current concepts review: hallux valgus part 1: pathomechanics, clinical assessment, and nonoperative management. Foot Ankle Int [Internet]. 2007;28(5):654–9. Available from:

Solomon L, Warwick D, Nayagam S. Apley and solomon’s concise system of orthopaedics and trauma. CRC Press; 2014

Piqué-Vidal C, Solé MT, Antich J. Hallux valgus inheritance: pedigree research in 350 patients with bunion deformity. J Foot Ankle Surg [Internet]. 2007;46(3):149–54. Available from:

Nix S, Smith M, Vicenzino B. Prevalence of hallux valgus in the general population: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Foot Ankle Res [Internet]. 2010;3(1):21. Available from:

Kuhn J, Alvi F. Hallux Valgus. 2022 Sep 29 [cited 2023 Jan 21]; Available from:

Hardy RH, Clapham JCR. Observations on hallux valgus; based on a controlled series. J Bone Joint Surg Br [Internet]. 1951;33-B(3):376–91. Available from:

Barnicot NA, Hardy RH. The position of the hallux in West Africans. J Anat. 1955;89(3):355–61

Soemarko DS, Rahmasari F, Kamal AF, Cahayadi SD, Herqutanto. Hallux valgus among sales promotion women wearing high heels in a department store. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) [Internet]. 2019;27(1):2309499019828456. Available from:

Ferreyra M, Núñez-Samper M, Viladot R, Ruiz J, Isidro A, Ibañez L. What do we know about hallux valgus pathogenesis?: Review of the different theories. J Foot Ankle [Internet]. 2020;14(3):223–30. Available from:

Glasoe WM, Nuckley DJ, Ludewig PM. Hallux valgus and the first metatarsal arch segment: a theoretical biomechanical perspective. Phys Ther [Internet]. 2010;90(1):110–20. Available from:

Yu G, Fan Y, Fan Y, Li R, Liu Y, Antonijevic D, et al. The role of footwear in the pathogenesis of hallux Valgus: A proof-of-concept finite element analysis in recent humans and Homo naledi. Front Bioeng Biotechnol [Internet]. 2020;8:648. Available from:

Hallux Valgus: Pathogenesis and clinical findings | Calgary Guide [Internet]. [cited 2023 Jan 21]. Available from:

Steadman J, Barg A, Saltzman CL. First Metatarsal Rotation in Hallux Valgus Deformity. Vol. 42, Foot and Ankle International. SAGE Publications Inc.; 2021. p. 510–22.

Stephens MMC, Stephens MM, Ortho C. Pathogenesis of hallux vaigus. Vol. 1, EUR J FOOT ANKLE SURG. 1994.

Wheeler Haines R, Mcdougall A. THE ANATOMY OF HALLUX VALGUS. 2021

Choa R, Sharp R, Mahtani KR. Hallux valgus. BMJ. 2010;341. Available from:

Leigheb M, Baricich A, Alberto Grassi F. Influence of hallux valgus management on Quality of Life Wrist trauma View project Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation and Nutritional interventions in Osteoporotic Hip Fracture View project [Internet]. 2012. Available from:

Kakwani M, Kakwani R. Current concepts review of hallux valgus. Vol. 8, Journal of Arthroscopy and Joint Surgery. Reed Elsevier India Pvt. Ltd.; 2021. p. 222–30. Available from:

Hecht PJ, Lin TJ. Hallux valgus. Vol. 98, Medical Clinics of North America. 2014. p. 227–32. Available from:

Nakagawa R, Yamaguchi S, Kimura S, Sadamasu A, Yamamoto Y, Muramatsu Y, et al. Efficacy of foot orthoses as nonoperative treatment for hallux valgus: A 2-year follow-up study. Journal of Orthopaedic Science. 2019 May 1;24(3):526–31. Available from:

Reina M, Lafuente G, Munuera PV. Effect of custom-made foot orthoses in female hallux valgus after one-year follow up. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2013 Apr;37(2):113–9. Available from:

Torkki M, Malmivaara A, Seitsalo S, Hoikka V, Laippala P, Paavolainen P. Hallux valgus: Immediate operation versus 1 year of waiting with or without orthoses - A randomized controlled trial of 209 patients. Acta Orthop Scand. 2003 Apr;74(2):209–15. Available from:

Monteagudo M, Martínez-de-Albornoz P. Management of Complications After Hallux Valgus Reconstruction. Foot and Ankle Clinics. W.B. Saunders; 2020;25(1):151–67. Available from:

Fraissler L, Konrads C, Hoberg M, Rudert M, Walcher M. Treatment of hallux valgus deformity. EFORT Open Rev. 2016 Aug 1;1(8):295–302. Available from:

Baravarian B, Ben-Ad R. Revision hallux valgus. Causes and correction options. Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery. W.B. Saunders; 2014;31(2):291–8. Available from:

Lee KT, Park YU, Jegal H, Lee TH. Deceptions in hallux valgus. What to look for to limit failures. Foot and Ankle Clinics. W.B. Saunders; 2014;19(3):361–70. Available from:

Barg A, Harmer JR, Presson AP, Zhang C, Lackey M, Saltzman CL. Unfavorable outcomes following surgical treatment of hallux valgus deformity: A systematic literature review. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery - American Volume. 2018;100(18):1563–73. Available from:

Lagaay PM, Hamilton GA, Ford LA, Williams ME, Rush SM, Schuberth JM. Rates of Revision Surgery Using Chevron-Austin Osteotomy, Lapidus Arthrodesis, and Closing Base Wedge Osteotomy for Correction of Hallux Valgus Deformity. Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery. 2008 Jul;47(4):267–72. Available from:

Hernández-Castillejo LE, Martínez Vizcaíno V, Garrido-Miguel M, Cavero-Redondo I, Pozuelo-Carrascosa DP, Álvarez-Bueno C. Effectiveness of hallux valgus surgery on patient quality of life: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Orthop. 2020 Jul 3;91(4):450–6. Available from:

Additional Files