Insights in biology and physiology of bone and bone healing in critical-sized bone defects: A brief review


  • Anissa Feby Canintika Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia - Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • I Gusti Ngurah Arga Aldrian Oktafandi Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia



bone, bone healing


Bone, a mineralized connective tissue that is highly dynamic, complex and vascularized, is unlike other tissues; when injured, such tissue does not form scar; instead, it heals and remodels throughout life. However, bone has limited regenerative capacity; bone can only repair itself when the injury is not extensive. When the defect is too large, bone may not be able to repair itself without treatment. In this review, we discuss the biology and physiology of bone and bone healing.


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